Ingredients Encyclopedia

Plant Kingdom

Achillea Millefolium

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is a flowering plant in the Asteraceae family. Old man’s pepper, devil’s nettle, sanguinary, milfoil, soldier’s woundwort, and thousand seal are other frequent names.

Achillea millefolium is a spreading rhizomatous perennial herbaceous plant with one to multiple stems 0.2–1 m (8–40 inches) tall. The plant has a strong, sweet aroma like chrysanthemums, which may irritate. Proazulenes make yarrow essential oil dark blue, contains chamazulene and -cadinol. millefolium. Septimus Piesse identified azulene’s chromophore in yarrow and wormwood in 1863.

Yarrow contains phenolic acids like gallic acid, 3, 4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid, and flavonoids like myricetin, hesperidin, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, rutin, hyperoside.

The genus name Achillea comes from mythological Greek figure Achilles, who supposedly brought it with his army to cure battle wounds. The specific epithet millefolium and the popular names milfoil and thousand leaf stem from the featherlike, minutely split leaves.

The English name yarrow comes from its Saxon (Old English) name gearwe, which is related to the Dutch word gerw (alternately yerw) and the Old High German word garawa. In the eastern counties, it may be called yarroway. In France, it was called ‘herbe de St. Joseph’ after a Christian revision of the Achilles story in which Jesus uses the plant to heal his adoptive father. Carpenter’s weed is another name for it.

Arrowroot, nosebleed, death flower, spooky, hundred leaved grass, knyghten, old man’s mustard, sanguinary, seven-year’s love, snake’s grass, soldier, and gordaldo are other names. From its leaf form and texture, New Mexico and southern Colorado name it plumajillo (Spanish for “little feather”).

From sea level to 3,500 m (11,500 ft), yarrow grows. Common yarrow grows in slightly disturbed meadows and open woodlands. Spring is active growth, it grows from the UK to China in Eurasia. Common yarrow grows in every habitat in California except the Colorado and Mojave Deserts, with an average yield of 110,000 plants per hectare (43,000/acre) and a dry weight of 11,800 kg/ha (10,500 pounds/acre). It is a prevalent weed in wet and dry locations including roadsides, meadows, fields, and coastal areas in New Zealand and Australia, where it has been introduced as animal feed.

A. millefolium was used in traditional medicine due to its astringent and mild laxative properties. The Navajo chewed the plant for toothaches and used its infusions for earaches. The Miwok in California used the plant as an analgesic and head cold remedy. Native Americans used the plant for cuts and abrasions, earaches, throat infections, and eyewash. Plains indigenous peoples used common yarrow to reduce pain or fever and aid sleep. In the early 20th century, some Ojibwe people breathed yarrow leaf decoctions over hot stones to relieve migraines or applied root decoctions to skin for stimulation.

The entire plant is edible and nutritious, but it is advised not to consume much. The foliage is pungent, and both its leaves and flowers are bitter and astringent. Young leaves can be eaten raw and added to salad. The leaves, with an aniseed-grass taste, can be brewed as tea. Yarrow was part of gruit, a medieval herbal concoction used to flavor beer before hops. The blooms and leaves are used in various liquors and bitters.

Yarrow attracts helpful insects and repels pests. Predatory wasps consume the nectar and feed their larvae vermin. It also attracts ladybirds and hoverflies.

A. millefolium’s drought resilience makes it a good soil erosion fighter. Before ryegrass monocultures, grass and pasture included A. millefolium was used in grass blends because to its deep roots and mineral-rich leaves, which reduced mineral deficits in ruminant feed. New Zealand introduced it as a drought-tolerant pasture.

Spiritual Connections

In antiquity, the plant was known as herba militaris for its use in stanching the flow of blood from wounds. Other names implying its historical use in healing—particularly in the military—include bloodwort, knight’s milfoil, staunchweed, and, from its use in the US Civil War, soldier’s woundwort. Its use in starting or stopping nosebleeds led to the common name nosebleed. It was also called bad ma for its association with the Abrahamic de
In Homer’s Iliad, the centaur Chiron taught humans herbal secrets and instructed Achilles to utilize yarrow on the Troy battlefield.

A 50-yarrow bunch. millefolium subsp. Millefolium var. millefolium stalks, I Ching divination
Yarrow and tortoiseshell are fortunate in Chinese culture. I Ching divination uses dried stalks to randomize. A leaf across the eyes was thought to produce second sight in the Hebrides. In Sussex and Devonshire superstition, yarrow found one’s true love.

Yarrow Poetry:

Sweet yarrow, my first find,
I pull it up in Jesus’ name.
Joseph cherished Mary.
I hope my true love appears in a dream tonight.
and sleep with yarrow beneath the pillow[61].

Wicklow girls picked yarrow on Hallow Eve and recited:

Venus’ tree’s lovely herb,
You’re yarrow.
Whoever my bosom buddy is,
Inform me tomorrow.
then sleep with an ounce of yarrow sewed in flannel beneath the pillow.

While reciting, a Suffolk leaf was inserted in the nose to bleed.

Green ‘arrow, green ‘arrow, you take a white strike.
My nose will bleed if my lover loves me;
If my love doesn’t love me, it won’t bleed,
If my love loves me, ’twill bleed every drop.[61]
On May Day or the night before, Dublin ladies would put a stocking full of yarrow beneath their pillow and recite:

Good morning, yarrow.
I hope my beloved sees the yarrow;
to marry me.
His attire and hair color,
If he’s for me, turn to me.
If not, black and certainly may he be,
He faces away from me.

According to James Britten, “the first herb our Saviour put in His hand when a child” was yarrow, which was supposed to bring luck.

Boswellia Sacra (Gum)

The Burseraceae tree Boswellia sacra (also known as frankincense and olibanum-tree) is the main source of frankincense, a sticky dried sap. Oman, Yemen, and Somalia are home to the olibanum tree. Boswellia sacra, a tiny deciduous tree with one or more trunks, grows to 2 to 8 m (6 ft 7 in to 26 ft 3 in) and has paper-like bark that may be readily removed. On steep slopes, Boswellia sacra trees produce buttress roots from the roots up into the base of the stem, forming a cushion that sticks to the rock and stabilizes the tree.

In Somalia, frankincense is harvested mainly in Bari and east of Sanaag regions: mountains east of Bosaso; west to laasqorey; calmadow mountain range, a westerly escarpment that runs parallel to the coast; middle segment of the frankincense-growing escarpment; and Karkaar mountains or eastern escarpment, which is at the eastern fringe of the escarpment. The ancient coastal city of Sumhuram, now Khor Rori, sold frankincense from Dhofar, Oman, north of Salalah. Resin trees produce resin about 8–10 years old.

A short, shallow incision or crust removal on the tree’s trunk or branches extracts the resin. Hand-collected milky resin is drained. Resin production and tree growth vary greatly. Nejd trees grow slowly and produce high-quality resin in huge, white clusters. Omanis and other Gulf State Arabs value this resin beyond all others from North and Northeast Africa, India, and Asia, and they price it appropriately.Citation required Most agree that Somalia’s enormous boswellia woods generate high-quality resin. Middle Eastern traffickers have been reported to resale the better Somali product as if it were produced in their own countries.

Leucothoe, a mortal lady, was frankincense in Greek mythology. Helios left Clytie to love her. Clytie alerted Orchamus, who buried Leucothoe alive. Helios came too late to rescue her, so he changed her into an incense tree so she could breathe. In the Gospel of Matthew, magi delivered presents to Jesus of Nazareth as a child. Frankincense was a gift. Even though Jesus was young, this demonstrated his divinity.

Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter)

Shea butter is a triglyceride (primarily oleic and stearic acids) derived from the nut of the African shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa). Raw ivory, it is colored yellow using borututu root or palm oil. It’s a popular moisturizer, salve, and lotion. Africans cooks use shea butter, sometimes blended with other oils to replace cocoa butter, although it tastes different.

The tree’s Bambara name, s, became “shea” in English. It’s called kpakahili in Dagbani, taama in Wali, nkuto in Twi, ka’e or ka’anya in Hausa, òkwùmá in Igbo, òrí in Yoruba, karité in Senegal’s Wolof language, ori in various regions of West Africa, and many more.

Mali’s Bambara language calls it “shea tree” (shísu). This is the origin of the English term, which rhymes with “tea” /i/ or “day” /e/. Major dictionaries rank the latter pronunciation second. The French name of the tree and butter, karité, comes from the Senegalese Wolof word ghariti.

The shea tree grows in the arid savannah zone of West Africa from Senegal to Sudan and the Ethiopian highlands. It occurs in 21 African countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, and Guinea.

By the 14th century, Saouga’s testa showed shea butter manufacturing.By 1846, Britain imported butter. Shea butter contains palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and arachidic fatty acids (see Table). Stearic and oleic acids comprise 85–90% of fatty acids. Shea butter consistency depends on their ratio. Depending on temperature, the oleic acid makes shea butter soft or hard, while the stearic acid makes it solid.

The species’ distribution range affects shea kernel and butter stearic and oleic acid ratios. Ugandan shea butter melts at warm temperatures and contains significant oleic acid content. Liquid shea oil comes from it. West African shea butter ranges from 37 to 55% oleic acid, unlike Ugandan shea butter. Even locally, hard and soft butter trees may grow together.

The average fatty acid profile of the population determines shea butter consistency since nuts are obtained from a large region for local manufacture. Shea butter from Burkina Faso’s Mossi Plateau has a greater average stearic acid concentration than other West African shea butters, making it tougher.

Shea butter is mostly used in cosmetics for skin and hair (lip gloss, lip stick, skin moisturizing creams and emulsions, and dry, brittle hair conditioners).Citation required Because it includes several unsaponifiables, soap and massage oil producers use it in tiny quantities to create softer, less effective soap. Due to its expensive cost compared to palm oil or pomace (olive oil), shea butter is seldom used in commercial soap. Artisan soap producers may use up to 25%, but the European Union limits it to 28%.

Shea butter is used in Benin for cooking oil, waterproofing wax, hairdressing, candle-making, and medicinal ointments. It strengthens wood, dried calabash gourds, and leather tuning straps in traditional African percussion instruments.

Calendula Officinalis
Calendula officinalis, the pot marigold, common marigold, ruddles, Mary’s gold, or Scotch marigold, is an Asteraceae flowering plant. Its lengthy history of cultivation makes its exact origin obscure, however it may be a garden plant from southern Europe.Clarification required Southern England and other warm temperate areas have naturalized it.
Calendula officinalis, a short-lived scented herbaceous perennial, grows to 80 cm (31 in) tall with sparsely branching lax or erect stems. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, hairy on both sides, and 5–17 cm (2–7 in) long. A double-flowered Calendula officinalis cultivar grows well in sunny settings in most soils. Although perennial, it is sometimes regarded as an annual, especially in colder places where it survives poorly in winter and hot summers when it dies. Calendula officinalis seeds Many gardening experts say calendulas are the simplest and most adaptable flowers to cultivate, particularly because they tolerate most soils. In temperate areas, spring seeds produce summer and autumn blossoms. Autumn seeds provide winter color in places with little winter freeze. Cultivars having ‘double’ or’semi-double’ flowerheads with ray florets replacing part or all of the disc florets have been chosen. Flower colors vary from light yellow to orange-red. Examples include ‘Alpha’ (deep orange), ‘Jane Harmony’, ‘Sun Glow’ (bright yellow), ‘Lemon’ (pale yellow), ‘Orange Prince’ (orange), ‘Indian Prince’ (dark orange-red), ‘Pink Surprise’ (double, with inner florets darker than outer florets), ‘Green-heart Gold’ (double, bright yellow), ‘Apricot Pygmy’ (double light peach) and ‘Chrysantha’ (yellow, double). Yellow-variegated ‘Variegata’ leaves.

Edible pot marigold florets. They are used to decorate salads and replace saffron. The leaves are edible but tasteless. Salads and potherbs have used them. The plant makes tea. Ancient Greek, Roman, Middle Eastern, and Indian societies employed flowers as medicine and coloring for textiles, meals, and cosmetics. These usage continue. They create skin-protecting oil. Marigold leaf poultices may help scratches and small wounds heal quicker and avoid infection. Eyedrops include it.

Triterpenoid esters and flavoxanthin and auroxanthin, antioxidants and yellow-orange pigments, are found in Calendula officinalis petals and pollen. The leaves and stems contain lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene. Cosmetics employ plant extracts because of saponins, resins, and essential oils. Calendula officinalis flowers include flavonol glycosides, triterpene oligoglycosides, oleanane-type glycosides, saponins, and sesquiterpene glucoside. In vitro plant pharmacological research show Calendula extracts may be anti-viral, anti-genotoxic, and anti-inflammatory.[18] Methanol and ethanol extracts of C. officinalis demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity in an in vitro experiment.

Cedrus Atlantica

The Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica, is a pine tree endemic to Morocco’s Rif and Atlas Mountains (Middle Atlas, High Atlas) and Algeria’s Tell Atlas.

Atlas cedar grows to 30 to 35 m (98 to 115 ft) (occasionally 40 m) tall and 1.5 to 2 m (4.9 to 6.6 ft) wide. It resembles all other Lebanon cedar kinds. The mean cone size tends to be considerably smaller (although documented to 12 cm, relatively seldom above 9 cm long, compared to up to 10 cm in C. brevifolia and 12 cm in C. libani), albeit with substantial overlap (all may be as low as 6 cm). Cedrus atlantica has a leaf length of 10–25 mm, which is longer than C. brevifolia but shorter than C. libani subsp. libani.

Morocco possesses the world’s largest Atlas cedar forests in humid regions surrounding the Middle-Atlas range, the eastern and Northern High-Atlas ranges, and the Western and Central Rif mountain range. The Middle-Atlas mountains make up 115,000 of the 163,000 hectares. Humans, fires, and wood exploitation threaten the species. Only the Middle-Atlas mountains had more Atlas cedars (almost 150,000 hectares) in 1927. The Rif mountains used to have one of Morocco’s greatest cedar woods, but currently just 15% remain. Ifrane Province has had major reforestation projects.

Atlas cedars are declining in Algeria. The species formed forests near Kabylie’s Djurdjura and Aures Mountains on 23,000 hectares in 1966. Due to fires and human usage, it may occupy less than 15,000 hectares.

Uses and cultivation
Temperate climates grow C. atlantica as an attractive tree. Glauca group decorative trees are widely planted in gardens. Fastigiate, pendulous, and golden-leaf types are grown. The Atlas cedar is more drought-resistant than other conifers, making it excellent for cultivation.Citation required

Young cultivated trees frequently have more ascending branches than C. atlantica specimens and have glaucous (bluish) foliage, downy shoots, and more leaves per whorl.

UK cultivars with the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit
The White House South Lawn has an Atlas cedar. President Carter commissioned a cedar tree home for his daughter Amy. The President created the self-supporting wooden framework to protect the tree.

C. atlantica glauca (Blue Atlas cedar) in Virginia’s Orland E. White Research Arboretum.
Southern France has timber-producing C. atlantica cedar plantations.

Atlas Cedar reduces cellulite and oedemas by draining, lipolytic, and toning the venous and lymphatic systems. It’s mucolytic, decongestant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic. The scalp and epidermis benefit from its antifungal, cleaning, healing, and renewing properties. It restores dull, damaged hair.

Cocos Nucifera


Copernicia Cerifera / Prunifera (Wax)

Copernicia prunifera, often known as the carnaúba palm or carnaubeira palm, is endemic to northeastern Brazil (primarily Ceará, Piauí, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte, and Bahia). The Carnaúba is Ceará’s emblem and a “tree of life” due to its multiple uses. Its symbolism promotes conservation and sustainable usage.
Copernica prunifera may reach 20 m tall with an average 25 cm trunk diameter, circular tree crown, 1.5 m fan-leaves, bisexual blooms, and 2.5 cm black spherical fruits. Palms live 200 years. It grows well but needs plenty of water. Trees grow well on slightly salty soil. In flood zones or near rivers, sociable palm trees called carnaubas form carnaubais. The subfamily Coryphoideae, tribe Corypheae, subtribe Livistoninae includes this tree.

The Carnauba palm tree is native to the Caatinga, a distinct Brazilian ecosystem covering 826,411 km2. Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia, and a northern stretch of Minas Gerais have the latter. Caatinga borders the Amazon rainforest, Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado grassland, covering 10% of the country and 70% of the Northeast. The Caatinga has a semiarid environment with 800 mm of unevenly distributed annual rainfall, causing extended droughts. The carnauba palm tree is very adaptable and spreads across broad areas, affecting regions. This northeastern palm also has significant ecological effects. The carnauba palm tree, which grows along rivers and streams, prevents siltation and soil erosion. Bats, pigs, wild hogs, and certain Psittacidae (parrots and parakeets) eat carnauba palm tree fruits, helping disperse their seeds. Bees create honey from its nectar and pollen, pollinating this species. The carnauba palm tree helps animals migrate, balance the ecology, and eat. Flocking birds nest and relax on this palm tree.

It produces carnauba wax from its leaves. Fruit, pith, leaves, and wood are consumed, used, and constructed. Carnauba makes several diverse materials. Its fruits nourish cattle, donkeys, goats, and pigs or make jelly for humans. Natives eat carnauba flour made from pulp. Edible seeds provide cooking oil. Fruits replace coffee when ground and brewed.

Carnauba wax is its main product makes carbon paper, candles, chalk, matches, soap, woodwork stains, leather, furniture, vehicle, and shoe polish. Cerotic acid and myricyl alcohol are present.[3]

The leaves dry in the sun after harvesting. Beat and whisk dried leaves to remove wax powder from plant debris. A mortar concentrates the powder to combine with water and melt into liquid wax. After drying, pieces are sold.[5][8]

Leaf fibers
“Bagana” leaf fibers are wax byproducts. Biomass may be composted, covered to retain humidity, or compacted into high-energy biofuel briquettes for power production. Hats, baskets, bags, and other household items are made from “palha” leaf fibers (Steinle and Johnson, 1935; Duke and duCellier). Tourists appreciate these handicrafts, which provide local money. Wax palm leaves make rustic roofs too.

Carnauba Wood is a popular local building material since it naturally resists termites. Its usage in beach tents as a central pillar/column/post and leaf roof is frequent, even if low-income individuals utilize it.

Carnauba Wood’s versatility is shown by Ceará’s Mercado de Carne de Aquiraz [pt].[9][10] While the roof is supported by trusses and beams built from the complete Carnauba trunk, the ceramic roof tiles are painstakingly installed atop rafters made from the same wood, chopped into four equal portions.

It’s drought-resistant. Trees grow well on slightly salty soil.


Carnaúba harvester.[11]
To ensure thorough leaf drying, wax must be harvested during the dry season. August–December is harvest time. Longer winters may delay harvests.After a heavy wet season, a Carnuaba palm tree may produce 60 leaves.For high wax content, the upper leaves are harvested using a long pole with a hooked blade (Figure 1). Each tree receives three 80-day cuts to preserve carnauba output.[3][8] Due to synthetic and petroleum goods, carnauba-derived materials production fell in the early 1970s.[13] In the early 2000s, output climbed to 20,000 tons of powder and 2,500 tons of wax, which has been maintained.[14]

Economy Carnauba extracts and uses leaves, stems, tales, fibre, fruits, and roots. Products are made using these materials.[15] Due to market demand, wax powder is the plant’s most lucrative element.[12] Northeastern Brazil, particularly Rio Grande do Norte (5%), Ceará (35%), and Piauí (45%), produces carnauba. Only Brazil exports, while Japan, the US, and Europe import.[14][16][17]

Daucus Carota Sativa
Daucus carota, a flowering plant in the Apiaceae family, is known as wild carrot, [3] European wild carrot, bird’s nest, bishop’s lace, and Queen Anne’s lace (North America). It was naturalized in the New World from temperate Old World locations. Domesticated carrots are Daucus carota subsp. sativus.

The wild carrot is a hairy, biennial herbaceous plant that grows between 30 and 120 cm (1 and 4 feet). Triangular, tripinnate, lacy leaves. The leaves are alternating, bristly, and 5–15 cm (2–6 in) long. Flat, thick umbels of tiny, dull-white blooms. Terminal umbels measure 8–15 cm (3–6 in).[6][5] The umbel center may contain a reddish or purple bloom and be pink in bud. Unlike other white-flowered umbellifers, the lower bracts are three-forked or pinnate. The umbel folds up, congests, and turns concave as the seeds grow. Small, dry, rough, round, flattened fruits with short styles, hooked spines, and protecting hairs.[8]The fruit has bicarpellate mericarps. Fruit endosperm matures before embryo.Tumbleweeds form when dried umbels fall off.Anthocyanin-colored small red flowers attract insects [10]. Flowers bloom May–September.

D. carota, which resembles poison hemlock, has tripinnate leaves, fine hairs on its solid green stems and leaves, a carrot-scented root, and sometimes a solitary dark red bloom in the umbel.[11][12] Hemlock stems lack hairiness and show purple mottling.[13] Both plants are common wildflowers throughout North America because to European colonization.

Dark central floret function
Since Charles Darwin said they were vestigial, the center black florets of D. carota have been debated.[14] They may resemble insects to discourage herbivory[15] or attract pollinators[16] by signaling food or mating.[17] In one Portuguese investigation, the variegated carpet beetle, Anthrenus verbasci, visited inflorescences with more black florets than those without. Replacing the dark florets with one or more freeze-killed A. verbasci, which are identical in size and form, had similar outcomes to inflorescences containing intact florets.[18]

Carl Linnaeus’ 1753 Species Plantarum described the carrot.[19] Daucus carota’s genome was sequenced internationally in 2016.[20]

Only Daucus carota produces cultivated carrots.[21]

Domestic and wild carrots are Daucus carota L. D. carota has multiple climate-adapted subspecies. Two Dutch subspecies are known. D. carota subsp. sativus has multicolored roots. Sweeter and thicker root. D. carota subsp. sativus’s whorl of barbs above the spine on the mericarp’s vallecular ridges matures nicely.Clarification required D. carota subsp. carota has thin, bitter, white roots and is not edible. D. carota subsp. carota has a crimson to deep purple blossom with a poorly formed center umbellet, unlike D. carota sativus.[22]

Subtaxa include:[2]

var. abyssinicus A.Braun
Daucus carota subsp. Mart.Flores, D.M.Spooner, M.B.Crespo
Azoric Daucus carota Franco
Daucus cantabricus A.Pujadas
Daucus capillifolius (Gilli) Arbizu
Daucus caporientalis Reduron
Carota subsp.
commutatus (Paol.) Thell.
Daucus corsoccidentalis Reduron
drepanensis (Arcang.) Heywood
Daucus fontanesii Thell.
(Rouy & E.G.Camus) Heywood
Daucus carota (Syme) Hook.f.
halophilus (Brot.) A.Pujadas
Daucus carota (Gouan) Arcang. Daucus carota subsp. major.
Majoricus Daucus A.Pujadas
Daucus carota (Lam.) Batt.
(Desf.) Ball
var. meriensis Reduron
D. carota otaportensis Reduron
Daucus carota (Guss.) Heywood
sativus (Hoffm.) Schübl.& G.Martens
Daucus carota (A.Chev.) Mart.Flores, D.M.Spooner, M.B.Crespo
Daucus valeriae Reduron
Habitat and spread
North America and Australia received the plant from temperate Europe[5] and southwest Asia.

It grows along roadsides and in abandoned fields. It prefers sun to moderate shade.[6]

Daucus carota foliage, particularly damp leaves, might irritate certain individuals.[23][24] Horses may react mildly.[25]

Daucus carota protects against fungal illnesses using falcarinol. The chemical kills mice and Daphnia magna in lab experiments.[26] Humans can safely eat carrots.[27]

Uses D. carota roots, like carrots, are edible when young but turn woody.Citation required Flowers are battered and fried. Edible leaves and seeds.[6]

D. carota resembles poison hemlock, and its leaves may induce phytophotodermatitis [28][24]. The seeds and blooms have been used for millennia as contraceptive and abortifacients.[29][30][31] Flowers dye milky, off-white.

Freshly cut D. carota will change color depending on the water it is in. Only the plant’s “head” or bloom shows this effect. Carnations do too. Grade school science demonstrations include this event.

Useful weed
Crop companions include this useful weed. Like other umbellifers, it draws wasps to its tiny blooms in its native region, but when it has been imported, it attracts few wasps. Blueberries attracted butterflies and wasps in northeast Wisconsin.[32] Intercropping lettuce with this species creates a cooler, moister microclimate that boosts tomato output.[33] However, Iowa, Michigan, and Washington have declared it a noxious plant [34] and a major pasture pest. Two to five years in the soil seed bank.[35]

Several causes might cause carrot roots to develop aberrant metabolites, such as 6-methoxymellin, that taste bitter. Apples make carrots bitter. Ethylene stress may also cause bitterness.[36]

Queen Anne’s lace, or Daucus carota, is native to North America. The plant is named after Anne, Queen of Great Britain, and her great-grandmother, Anne of Denmark.[37] The crimson blossom in the middle is thought to symbolize a droplet of blood from Queen Anne’s needle puncture while sewing lace, thus the name.

Historical art
Historical writings and artwork document Daucus carota cultivation worldwide. Carrot history may be found in 16th- and 17th-century paintings of market maids or farmers’ latest harvests. Such paintings illustrate that Turkey, North Africa, and Spain grew yellow or crimson roots. 17th-century Netherlands grew orange roots.[38]

Poetry references
William Carlos Williams wrote “Queen Anne’s Lace” in 1921’s Sour Grapes.

Hippophea Rhamnoides
Lavandula Angustifolia
Melaleuca Alternifolia
Olea Europaea
Punica Granatum
Rubus Idaeus (Seed Oil)
Santalum Australcaldedonicum
Sesamum Indicum
Theobroma Cacao
Xantham (Gum)

Boswellia Sacra (Gum)
Calendula Officinalis
Cedrus Atlantica
Santalum Australcaldedonicum
Melaleuca Alternifolia
Sesamum Indicum
Olea Europaea
Cocos Nucifera
Punica Granatum
Theobroma Cacao
Copernicia Cerifera (Wax)
Butyrospermum Parkii
Daucus Carota Sativa
Xantham (Gum)
Achillea Millefolium
Hippophea Rhamnoides
Rubus Idaeus (Seed Oil)
Lavandula Angustifolia

Mineral Kingdom
Amethyst Powder
Sodium Bicarbonate
Glyceryl Stearate Citrate

Metals / Metal Salts Kingdom
Zinc Oxide
Magnesium Citrate
Silver Citrate

Other Organic Chemistry / Molecular Substances
Caprylic / Capric Triglyceride
Glyceryl Caprylate

Citric Acid